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Above-the-line (ATL) is a form of media advertising where a commission or fee is paid to an agency working for its clients. The commission represents a percentage of the media investment - that is, how much is spent on media during the advertising campaign.
ATL campaigns appear, or run, in mainstream or mass media. Examples include commercials on television, and display ads on billboards. ATL advertising is interruptive. For example, it is broadcast on TV in the advertising break in the middle of a programme and does not form part of the programme itself.
The advertiser (the client) briefs, or informs, the advertising agency (also known as the ad agency) on the advertising objectives. Typical objectives for an ATL campaign include making the customer aware of a product or service, or building the image of a brand. It is the role of the ad adgency to develop an advertising strategy based on the client's advertising brief. The advertising strategy defines the advertising messages - what is to be communicated - and the choice of media. Media planners, working in the agency's media planning department or for a specialized media agency, define tile media strategy, identifying appropriate channels to reach the target audience. The media plan includes the selection of specific media vehicles (for example, types of press magazines, TV channels, poster networks) and the media schedule (the times and dates when the advertising will appear). Media buyers negotiate with advertising sales houses or advertising departments to get the best price for the media space selected in the media plan.
Note: Advertisements are more often referred to as adverts or ads.
Below-the-line (BTL) refers to any non-media advertising or promotion. Marketing services agencies are experts in BTL tactics, such as direct mail, exhibitions, point-of-sale, or street marketing. Marketing services agencies point to two trends that indicate that BTL spend will continue to grow:
1 Ad avoidance - consumers actively trying not to be exposed to advertising. Ad avoiders change channels during advertising breaks; this is sometimes known as zapping.
2 Media fragmentation - audiences are becoming smaller, or more fragmented, as the choice of media grows. Chris Anderson, editor-in-chief of Wired magazine, has invented the term the Long Tail to describe the growing number of sites on the internet with a small number of visitors. Emerging media (the internet, interactive TV, and virtual worlds such as Second Life) must now find ways to tap into, or exploit, the advertising opportunities in the Long Tail.
Some agencies now offer through-the-line (TTL), also known as full services. A full service marketing agency offers both ATL and BTL in blended marketing. TTL is also referred to as holistic marketing or 360 degree branding. It uses multichannel marketing, using both ATL and BTL communication channels to build brands. TTL can be very effective at drawing attention to your brand - getting people to notice it [1, p.70].
Advertising uses different techniques to appeal to consumers:
Pester power encourages children to ask their parents to buy a specific brand or product.
Beauty appeal or sex appeal
Beauty appeal or sex appeal suggests that consumers who use the product will be more attractive.
Peer approval associates the product with social acceptance by friends or peers.
Scientific claim or statistical claim
Scientific claim or statistical claim uses research or statistics to convince consumers.
Lifestyle advertising suggests that buying the brand will give access to an inspirational or more attractive lifestyle.
Rebel advertising goes against social norms and may appeal to teenagers,
Escape advertising makes the consumer imagine he or she is living a very different life.
Celebrity endorsement uses a famous person, such as a footballer or film star, to recommend the product.
Puffing uses a message that is so exaggerated that consumers will not believe it to be true - for example, 'The Ultimate Driving Machine' by BMW, or 'Get your teeth cleaner than clean' [1, p.114].
Make sentences using one part from each column. The first one has been done for you.
a Press magazines are media vehicles.
b Media planners, work in media agencies.
|don't run in
Out-of-home advertising formats
Outdoor advertising, or out-of-home (OOH) advertising can really grab your attention or get in your face. Advertisers have a wide choice of poster sites, sizes and formats.
Roadside panels: Billboards are large outdoor panels for displaying ads. Giant banners or wallscapes are hung on the front of buildings. Outdoor contractors also offer lightboxes (illuminated panels), tri-face billboards (with rotating sections allowing three different advertisements to be displayed in sequence) and scrollers (signs displaying a number of posters, one after the other).
Street furniture: In 1962 Jean-Claude Decaux introduced the concept of advertising on bus shelters. Pedestrian panels are backlit - lit from behind - and normally located on streets in town and city centres.
Transit advertising: Taxis, buses, trams and trains can be wrapped in vinyl showing a company's adverts. Ads can also be positioned inside or on the side or rear of a vehicle.
Ambient media: Adverts can be displayed on non-traditional media such as the back of a receipt from a shop or a travel ticket. The use of floor graphics is common in supermarkets and shopping centres.
Digital outdoor advertising: LED screens are used in similar sites to traditional billboards. Digital video billboards show short advertising spots (15, 30 or 60 seconds). Consumers can interact directly with some interactive advertising sites, such as bus shelters and poster panels, using their mobile phones.
Note: Paste is the adhesive used to attach posters to walls; the word can be used as a noun and as a verb. Billboards are sometimes called hoardings in India and the UK.
Effectiveness of OOH
Advertisers can buy a network of sites to target their consumers or to reach people in their geographical area, or catchment zone.
Eye-catching - attractive and noticeable - ads such as sonic posters (which include sounds), 'smelly' posters (including smells or odours) and lenticular posters (showing different images as you walk past them) can be very memorable.
Outdoor campaigns can be measured by opportunities to see (OTS) or coverage. The term approach specifies the distance between the point where the advertisement first become visible, to the point where is no longer readable because it has passed out of sight.
Complete the news report using words from the box. Look at A and B opposite to help you.
|catching coverage graphics hung shelters wrapped|
Commuters in Bristol were surprised by an invasion of out-of-home advertising last Tuesday. The opening of a new concert hall was announced by huge banners (1).....................on prominent sites around the city. Buses were (2) ............. in the concert hall's logo and colours. Bus (3)..................... were treated to new eye- (4) .................. interactive ads that lit up and made noises as pedestrians walked past. A spokesperson for the new concert hall said that the public reaction had been good. 'We got greater (5)........................... than we had imagined' he added. One commuter said that she had been pleasantly surprised to find herself walking on floor (6) ............instead of the ordinary floor [1, p.77].
Most newspapers are dailies, printed every day. Some are weeklies, printed once a week. The national daily press includes titles like The Sun and The Times in the UK and is available all over the country. The regional press is only available in certain parts of the country - for example, the South Wales Echo. The local press is similar to the regional press but for a smaller geographical area - for example, the Basingstoke Gazette is only for sale in the town of Basingstoke.
Tabloids are newspapers with a smaller format than broadsheets. Originally broadsheets carried more economic and political reports and were more serious. Most UK newspapers today are tabloid or Berliner, slightly bigger than a tabloid. However, the term tabloid press is still used to refer to less serious newspapers which contain sensational stories, short articles or reports, and a lot of photographs. Some newspapers are not sold but given away free. These freesheets are funded entirely by the advertising they carry.
Magazines can be weekly, published every week; fortnightly, published every two weeks; or monthly, published every month.
The advertising sales department of a newspaper or magazine sells advertising space or advertising positions in their publications. As part of the sales effort, ad salespeople work with the marketing team to prepare media packs, which contain information about:
• The advertising rates, or cost of advertising in the newspaper or magazine. The rate card shows the price of advertising and also gives technical data about the size, or format, of the ad. The copy deadline tells advertisers when they have to deliver the copy (the images and text for the ad) or the complete advert itself.
• Circulation figures or distribution figures, showing the number of copies (single newspapers or magazines) sold per issue (the version of the newspaper or magazine published on a particular date). The readership figures, which show how many people read the publication, may be higher than the circulation figures because one copy may be read by more than one person.
• The advertising policy of the publication, which gives general information on what can be advertised, which formats are available, and how to pay.
• Details and dates about special features - articles about a particular subject, such as the Technology Quarterly from The Economist, or reviews of fashion shows in women's magazines. If you are a clothing brand it is a good idea to book space to coincide with reviews of fashion shows.
Choose the correct word combinations from the brackets to complete the sentences. There are two possible answers for each question.
1 Our (copy deadline is / circulation figures are / readership is) growing year on year.
2 You can book (advertising positions / advertising space / advertising policy) using our secure online booking system.
3 Please click here to download a PDF version of our (media pack / book space / rate card).
4 Before submitting an ad, please make sure you have read and understood the (technical data / advertising space / advertising rates) [1, p.78-79].
1.Cate Farrall. Marianne Lindsley. Professional English in Use. Marketing // Cambridge University Press. - 144 p.